The 39 students in this Garfield Elementary 3rd grade class sat with their hands folded and backs straight for this silver print photo from circa 1910.  On every desk is a Elson Grammar School Reader where students would be able to practice the three R’s, reading, riting, ‘rithmetic.  Vocabulary would have included words like “pleasantest,” “cunning,” “corn-bin,” “lullaby,” and “johnny-cake.”  
The teacher, who’s name is unknown, would have likely valued memorization and repetition, which were the core of learning, and the Democracy in Education by John Dewey, would not be published for six more years.  
 
 
 
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